B A B E S C H Annual Papers on Mediterranean Archaeology

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Instructions for authors

Contributors are required to observe the following instructions when preparing manuscripts for submission to BABESCH.

Initial Submissions

Manuscripts should be submitted to the Editorial Secretary:

Lily Schaafsma
Krammer 59 NL 2401 DM Alphen a/d Rijn
The Netherlands
e-mail: contact (at) babesch.org

Authors are requested to supply their manuscripts on CD/DVD or USD media, accompanied by a printout and copies of all illustrations. Original photographs, drawings and plans may also be sent at this time. If the article is submitted by email, it is necessary to add a PDF file of the manuscript and its illustrations.

Authors should submit their manuscripts as soon as possible, but by March 1st at the latest if publication is desired in the following year. English, French, German, and Italian texts are welcome. Authors are advised to consult a native speaker or a translator.

Authors should also provide an abstract of approximately 100 words of their text in English

Revised Submissions

When an article is accepted for publication, the author will be asked to provide the original illustrations and a revised version of the manuscript that conforms to the guidelines outlined below.

An article improperly prepared, even though accepted for publication, may be returned to the author for revision in accordance with these guidelines.
A revised manuscript should be submitted within three months of acceptance or it may need to be reviewed again. A manuscript will not be scheduled for publication until all files and illustrations have been received and approved.
Once the revised manuscript has been submitted, no major changes to the text will be allowed.

With the manuscript the author should also submit a revised version of the article's abstract in the language of the article as well as in English (of approximately 100 words).

Author information
At the end of their manuscript, authors should supply their name, full mailing address, and email address.

Copies and format
One hard copy of the revised manuscript and one electronic copy (CD/DVD-ROM) should be submitted. If the article is submitted by email, the paper printout must be replaced by a PDF file. The printout and the electronic files must be identical in all respects.
Ample margins of at least 2.5 cm (1 in.) are to be left on all edges of the page. All parts of the manuscript (abstract, text, notes, figure captions, tables, and list of works cited) must be double-spaced on one side only of standard-size paper (A4) and in a consistant font type and size.

Manuscripts should be prepared using Microsoft Word.
Create a separate electronic file for each component of the manuscript:
1. abstract, text, notes, and works cited
2. figure captions
3. tables, appendices, etc.
4. images.
Label the disk or CD/DVD with your name, the names of the files, and the type of software used to generate the files (including version number).
Do not embed tables or figures in the text!

Paragraphs should be justified to the left margin, separated by a space, and unindented.

Page numbering
All pages, including captions, notes, etc., should be numbered consecutively throughout the text, not by individual sections.

Item numbering
Al illustration items such as figures, plates and tables should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals. Provide each table wih a short caption above the table.

All headings should be typed on a separate line, not run in with the text. A-level subheads should be set in all caps and B-level subheads in italics. C-level subheads are to be avoided but, when necessary, should be set underlined. Thus:

Hydriae with show-handles

Greek characters
To enable easy conversion, authors are to make sure that Greek text is accompanied by the font that was used.
Imperative is that the text is supplied on a hardcopy printout or a PDF file. This will significantly reduce the introduction of errors into the manuscript when the files are typeset.

Authors may also set Greek text in SPIonic, a public domain Greek font available in both PC and Macintosh formats. Please click on the appropriate format to download the font:


To download a comprehensive keyboard chart for SPIonic (PDF, 60K), click here.

Notes should be formatted as endnotes, not footnotes. All notes should be numbered in one series on pages assembled at the end of the text, never in the text or at the bottom of pages of text. Notes must be formatted according to the guidelines given below. Authors should make every effort to reduce lengthy, discursive notes.

Acknowledgments should be placed immediately before the first note and referenced by an asterisk at the end of the abstract.

Tables should replace text, not duplicate it, and should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals. All sections of tables should be double-spaced. A short caption should be placed above each table. Tables must be submitted in Microsoft Word and should be included as separate files on your CD-ROM. Complex tables are best prepared by the author and submitted as illustrations; the Editorial Secretary reserves the right to ask for revisions.

List of figures
References to figures in the text must appear in consecutive order. For example, fig. 1 is called out before fig. 2, which is called out before fig. 3, etc.; fig. 2a is called out before fig. 2b, which is called out before fig. 2c, etc.
A list of figures with appropriate captions, legends, and credits should be provided on a separate sheet at the end of the text. Captions should be set in this format, with credits placed in
parentheses, and ending with a period:

Fig. 1. Stele of Lemnos. Athens, National Museum.
Fig. 2. Hera temple I ('Basilica') at Paestum (after Mertens 1993, fig. 61c).
Fig. 3. Plate F1315 from Aesis (Brecciaroli Taborelli 1996-1997, 111, fig. 57, n. 26).
Fig. 4. Excavation Bey 066 Beirut (photo: author).
Fig. 5. The three sample zones of the Potenza Valley Survey (map by Geert Verhoeven).

List of works cited (bibliography)
A list of studies cited in the text must accompany revised submissions, with full bibliographic information according to the guidelines given below.

Submitting Images

With the revised manuscript, authors should submit camera-ready illustrations of professional quality (original drawings, plans, etc., or glossy photographic prints, preferably no larger than 21 by 28 cm). Illustrations should be numbered consecutively and marked (in soft pencil) on the reverse or slide mount with the author's name and indication of top.
All photographs and illustrations can be printed in colour. Authors should consult with the editors when selecting and sizing images.
BABESCH cannot be held responsible for material that is lost or damaged in the mail.

Consideration must be given to BABESCH's dimensions and column width. The maximum printable area is 16 x 22 cm. Illustrations may be published from one-column (8 cm) or two-column (16 cm) width. Every attempt should be made to draw diagrams and plans to the same scale.

Illustrations may be submitted as digital files, these MUST be formatted according to the following guidelines:

Electronic figure files should be clearly labeled with author name, figure number, and file extension. If you should have any multipanel figures (i.e., figures with parts labeled a, b, c, d, etc.), please submit as individual figure files. Please also supply a high-quality hard copy of each of the figures in case the editorial office needs to re-scan. Supplied hard copies must match the digital file.

File format
We accept TIFF or EPS format. We also accept image files in the following native formats as long as the version of the application is noted, and the file is labeled with the correct extension: Macromedia Freehand = .fh, Adobe Illustrator = .ai, Adobe Photoshop = .psd.
Please note the resolution requirements below. We do NOT accept low-resolution (<300 dpi) or JPG format images.

Vector-based EPS files (i.e., Adobe Illustrator, Macromedia FreeHand) or EPS files exported from page layout applications should have all fonts converted to outlines, or fonts must be included with file submission. Raster files (image files or Photoshop files) saved as TIFF or EPS formats can be saved from any of the image-editing software programs.

It is extremely important that the correct resolution be used when submitting digital artwork. The minimum requirements for resolution of image files are:

Image Type Mode Format Resolution*
B&W line art vector EPS n/a
Bitmap (1 bit) BMP 1200 dpi
Grayscale TIFF/EPS 1200 dpi
Black & white photos Grayscale TIFF/EPS 350 dpi
Colour photos (halftones) Colour 350-400 dpi
Combination halftones (illustr./photo with text) Grayscale/colour TIFF/EPS 600 dpi

All artwork should be submitted at their actual size or larger (i.e., 100% of their print dimensions or over).
Do not size smaller than these published page dimensions:

Centimetres Inches Picas
for 1-column width 8 3.2 19
for 2-column width (page) 16 6.4 38
page length 22 8.8 52

Crop figures so that no unnecessary white space is left bordering the figure. This will help reduce the file size.
If an illustration is to be printed at less than 1-column or 2-column width, please note this with the caption for our reference - like this: '<ed. plse print at original dimensions>' (or specify the desired dimensions).

Placed/Imported Images
All images that have been placed or imported into your figure file must accompany this file on disk (i.e., if you import a photograph into Illustrator called photo.tif, you must supply this photo.tif electronic file along with your Illustrator file).

Invisible Elements
Many graphics files contain unnecessary 'invisible' elements. These are sometimes imported graphics that the creator of the file has traced over and then set not to print. To save us time, it is best to delete the unnecessary element rather than just set it not to print.

If you would like your figure printed in color, please include a color printout with your submission and note this with the captions for our reference - like this: '<ed. print in colour>'. Please note: the colors from a LaserWriter or ink-jet printer will differ slightly from those on the final four-color printer copy.

Fill Patterns
If possible, use large hatched patterns instead of dot fill patterns. When fine or smooth fills are scanned, mottled patterns often result. Dot fills must be between 20% and 70% black. The scanner 'sees' <20% black as white and >70% black as black.

Any fills that represent different values in the same illustration must differ by at least 30%. For example, fills that are 20% black and 40% must not be used on the same figure, but fills that are 30% black and 60% black are acceptable for use on the same figure.
Authors are requested to refrain from using images scanned from publications and obtain the original artwork or copies thereof where possible.

It is the responsibility of the author to obtain permission to reproduce, both in print and on BABESCH's Web site, any material protected by copyright.

A standard request form to obtain permission from the copyright holder to publish material in BABESCH can be downloaded:

copyright.doc (Microsoft Word file, 23K)

General Matters of Style

International units of measurements are to be preferred. All measurements should be expressed with Arabic numerals and abbreviated units unless they appear at the beginning of a sentence:

20 cm
Twenty-five kilometers from the site

If multiple dimensions are cited, use the following format:

1.5 x 1.9 m
0.3-0.5 cm in height

Chronological references
Era designations are to be set in capital letters without spaces, never in small caps. Authors are encouraged to use BC (before Christ) and AD (anno Domini) but BCE (Before Common Era) and CE (Common Era) are also allowed.

All numerical dates are to be written in their entirety except in cases of conventional epigraphic usage:

211-202 BC
AD 208-209

References to decades should be identified by their century and expressed in numerals. No apostrophe is needed between the year and the 's':


In citing radiocarbon dates, lowercase letters (b.p., b.c.) may be used for uncalibrated determinations, but it is advisable to specify this convention at the first mention in the text:

4000 b.c. (uncalibrated)

Modern dates should be cited as day/month/year, without punctuation:

15 January 1996

Common abbreviations such as fig., pl., e.g., i.e., and the like should be used in footnotes and parenthetical references within the text, but otherwise written out in full:

Horizontal bands below the rim on the interior of bowls and lids (e.g.,fig. 15) are common.
As can be seen in figure 15, for example, horizontal bands below the rim on the interior of bowls and lids are common.
1 See, e.g., fig. 15 for horizontal bands below the rim on the interior of bowls and lids.

References to classical literature
Latin titles are preferred, italicized according to the list of abbreviations given in S. Hornblower and A. Spawforth, eds., The Oxford Classical Dictionary, third edition (Oxford 1996; hereafter OCD3), followed by the appropriate book, chapter, paragraph, or line numbers, separated by periods. Authors' names and titles should be written out completely when appearing in the text, abbreviated when appearing in footnotes or parenthetical references within the text. Only the first word, proper nouns, and proper adjectives are to be capitalized:

As noted by Vitruvius (De arch. 2.3.3)
Vitruvius notes in De architectura (2.3.3)
1 Vitr. De arch. 2.3.3

Bibliographical References and Notes

General policy

Notes (endnotes) may contain explanation, amplification, or commentary in addition to short bibliographical citations whose full form i s given in a list of all cited works, published at the end of the article.

Format and style

End list of works cited (Bibliography)
Articles will end with a list of all works cited, in alphabetical order by last name of first author. Sample citations are provided below.

Bibliographical citations in notes are drawn from the list of cited works appearing at the end of the article. These citations should consist of the author's last name, the year of publication, and relevant inclusive pages, sections, figures, plates, and the like.

Notes with bibliographical citations only
Footnotes containing no supplementary information should be formatted as follows:

Single-volume works cited

1 Harrison 1982, 40-53.
2 Blümel 1966, pl. 36b.
3 Jones 1937, 30 n. 23.

Multiple works cited

1 Carlisle 1998, 265-287; see also Balzer 1996, 164-182; Margreth 1993.

Multiple references to the same work or author

1 Lancaster 1998, 1999.
2 Fitzmyer 1983, 47-106; 1990, 306.
3 Hamilton 1997a, 1997b.
4 Geagan 1995a, 16-20, 42.

Abbreviations of titles of periodicals and standard works may be used, and should follow those used in the Archäologische Bibliographie and the Richtlinien of the German Archaeological Institute (DAI).

Page numbers
Abbreviations such as f. or ff. for "following page(s)" are to be avoided; inclusive page references must be cited. The second number of inclusive page numbers is not to be abbreviated:

7-14, 100-104, 205-206, 417-542
46-48, 300-318, 908-917, 1241-1247
89-112, 1100-1162, 1004-1007, 1396-1430

Sample references

Sample references to books in list of works cited
The reference list entry is given first, followed by a sample footnote entry:

One author

Dyson, S.L. 1985, The Creation of the Roman Frontier, Princeton.
1 Dyson 1985, 86.

Two or more authors

Curtis, J./A. Green 1997, Excavations at Khirbet Khatuniyeh, London.
1 Curtis/Green 1997, 104-105.

Hunter, J./C. Roberts/A. Martin 1997, Studies in Crime: An Introduction to Forensic Archaeology, New York.
1 Hunter et al. 1997, 46-51.

Editor or translator as author

Colonna, G. (ed.) 1996, L'altorilievo di Pyrgi: Dei ed eroi greci in Etruria, Rome.
1 Colonna 1996, fig. 18.

Book in a series
(with series in the DAI list of abbreviations)

Buitron-Oliver, D. 1996, The Sanctuary of Apollo Hylates at Kourion: Excavations in the Archaic Precinct. (SIMA 109), Jonsered.
1 Buitron-Oliver 1996, 55-57.

Book in a series
(with series not in the DAI list of abbreviations)

Knauß, F.S. 1997, Der lineare Inselstil: Eine kykladische Keramikwerkstatt am Übergang von der spätgeometrischen zur archaischen Zeit (Saarbrücker Studien zur Archäologie und alten Geschichte 13), Saarbrücken.
1 Knauß 1997, 98-116.

Sample references to parts of books in list of works cited
Chapters or other titled parts of a book

Snodgrass, A. 1990, Survey Archaeology and the Rural Landscape of the Greek City, in O. Murray/S. Price (eds.), The Greek City from Homer to Alexander, Oxford.
1 Snodgrass 1990, 113-124.

Hägg, R. 1998, Osteology and Greek Sacrificial Practice, in R. Hägg (ed.), Ancient Greek Cult Practice from the Archaeological Evidence (SkrAth 8º, 15), Stockholm, 49-56.
1 Hägg 1998, fig. 1.

Sample references to journal articles
Journal article

Büsing, H. 1982, Metrologische Beiträge, JdI 97.
1 Büsing 1982, 1-45.

Book reviews

Smith, C. 1999, Review of P. Carafa, Il Comizio di Roma dalle origini all'età di Augusto, AJA 103.
1 Smith 1999, 571-572.

Wainwright, G. 1999, Review of The Archaeological Process: An Introduction, by I. Hodder. Antiquity 73.
1 Wainwright 1999, 718-719.

Guidelines for Book Reviewers

Editorial policy

BABESCH seeks reviews that assess a book's strengths and weaknesses, as well as locating it within the current field of scholarship. A review should not simply be a listing of contents, though its overall organization and emphasis are up to the individual reviewer. Please avoid lists of minor imperfections (e.g., misplaced commas), but do not hesitate to draw attention to serious editorial problems and errors of fact or interpretation. It is also helpful if reviewers indicate for which audiences and libraries the book seems appropriate. The editors reserve the right to edit for content and length. Examples of other reviews in recent issues of BABESCH may serve as models. It is our policy not to print replies or responses to reviews.

BABESCH does not accept unsolicited reviews but welcomes inquiries from those who are interested in reviewing individual books. Those who wish to become reviewers should contact the Editor-in-Chief directly and provide a curriculum vitae that includes a list of publications. Reviewers will receive a list of books available for review in BABESCH twice a year.


Book review articles and book reviews should be submitted to the Editorial Secretary:

Lily Schaafsma

Krammer 59
NL 2401 DM Alphen a/d Rijn
The Netherlands
e-mail: contact (at) babesch.org

E-mail submissions are preferred, but reviews may also be sent on CD or DVD.


Each review should be preceded by a heading in standard BABESCH format listing the book to be reviewed, number of pages and illustrations, publisher, year of publication, price (if available), and ISBNumber:

Valeria Acconcia, Il santuario del Pozzarello a Bolsena (Scavi Gabrici 1904). Roma: Giorgio Bretschneider Editore, 2000. 193 pp., 41 figs., 16 pls.; 30 cm (Archaeologica 127, Corpus delle s tipi votive in Italia 10). – ISBN 88-7689-170-6.
Ph. N. Zaphiropoulou, W. Schürmann, K. Schade, M. Moltesen, Antike Plastik (Herausgegeben im Auftrag des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts von A. D. Borbein) Lieferung 27. München: Hirmer Verlag, 2000. 131 S., Abb., 88 Taf.; 32 cm. – ISBN 3-7774-8510-1.

Author information
At the end of each review, authors should supply their name, full mailing address and e-mail address. The editors should be informed if authors wish proofs and offprints (5) to be sent elsewhere than to this address.

Notes and lists of works cited are not to be used in book reviews.
References should be kept to a minimum and incorporated into the text itself, as follows:

In his discussion of Julius Caesar (ch. 4), Arafat suggests that Pausanias viewed Caesar's refoundation of Corinth as the introduction to Greece of a large-scale and permanent Roman presence.
The equivocal nature of the archaeological remains cries for a more theoretically grounded approach, perhaps through ethnographic comparanda along the lines of P.K. Wason, The Archaeology of Rank (Cambridge 1994).
For the earlier period he points in particular to the apsidal houses and the incised pottery at the Altis site at Olympia, which J.B. Rutter (Hesperia 51 [1982] 459-488) has identified as belonging to the early EH III.
K.S.B. Ryholt (The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800-1550 B.C. [Copenhagen 1997] 104-105) has offered a different perspective on the palace.

Long quotations are to be avoided.


The Editorial Secretary will email authors PDF-formatted page proofs of the article, with figures and tables in place, and with instructions for making corrections.
While authors may clarify or modify the text in minor ways at this point, no major revisions are permitted. It is therefore crucial that authors submit the revised text in its final form.
Corrected PDFs should be returned to the Editorial Secretary within two weeks of receipt (address below).

Questions or remarks

Please send any questions or remarks concerning these instructions to the Editorial Secretary:

Lily Schaafsma
Krammer 59
NL 2401 DM Alphen a/d Rijn
The Netherlands
e-mail: contact (at) babesch.org